# Display Signals

Welcome back to Exploring FPGA Graphics. Last time, we played Pong against our FPGA; this time, we revisit displays signals and learn about palettes and indexed colour. This post was last updated in June 2022. In this series, we explore graphics at the hardware level and get a feel for the power of FPGAs. We’ll learn how screens work, play Pong, create starfields and sprites, paint Michelangelo’s David, simulate life, draw lines and triangles, and animate characters and shapes.

# Racing the Beam

Welcome back to Exploring FPGA Graphics. Last time, we got introduction to FPGA graphics; now, we’re ready to put our graphical skills to work with some simple demos. I hope these examples inspire you to create your own demos and improve your hardware design skills. This post was last updated in June 2022. In this series, we explore graphics at the hardware level and get a feel for the power of FPGAs.

# Multiplication with FPGA DSPs

Welcome back to my series covering mathematics and algorithms with FPGAs. I was initially going to look at real numbers in this part, but Project F is known for its practical, hands-on tutorials. So, I decided to dedicate a post to a topic usually ignored by introductory guides: multiplication with DSPs. We’ll cover real numbers in the next post. This post was last updated in December 2021. New to the series?

# Numbers in Verilog

Welcome to my new series covering mathematics and algorithms with FPGAs. Whatever hardware you’re designing, you’re likely to be working with numbers. This series begins with the basics of Verilog numbers, covers simple mathematics, including division and CORDIC, before looking at more complex algorithms, such as data compression. This post was last updated in February 2022. In this first post, we examine how integers (whole numbers) are represented and dig into the challenges of signed numbers in Verilog.

# Animated Shapes

Welcome back to Exploring FPGA Graphics. In the final part of our introductory graphics series, we’re looking at animation. We’ve already seen animation with hardware sprites, but double buffering gives us maximum creative freedom with fast, tear-free motion. We’ll be making extensive use of our designs from 2D Shapes, so have a look back at that post if you need a refresher on drawing shapes. This post was last updated in February 2022.

# Hello Arty - Part 3

Welcome back to our three-part FPGA tutorial with SystemVerilog and the Digilent Arty A7. In this third instalment, we build a countdown timer and model traffic lights. There’s a lot to get through this time: enums, case statements, button debouncing, shift registers, and the all-important finite state machine. This post was last updated in December 2021. New to the series? Start with part 1. Get in touch: GitHub Issues, 1BitSquared Discord, @WillFlux (Mastodon), @WillFlux (Twitter)

# 2D Shapes

Welcome back to Exploring FPGA Graphics. Building on our designs in lines and triangles, we’ll draw rectangles, filled triangles and circles. We’ll finish off this part by drawing a castle with our shapes. This post was last updated in January 2022. In this series, we explore graphics at the hardware level and get a feel for the power of FPGAs. We’ll learn how displays work, race the beam with Pong, animate starfields and sprites, paint Michelangelo’s David, simulate life with bitmaps, draw lines and shapes, and create smooth animation with double buffering.

# Hello Nexys - Part 2

Welcome back to our three-part FPGA tutorial with SystemVerilog and the Digilent Nexys Video. In part two, we’re going to learn about clocks and counting. Along the way, we’ll cover maintaining state with flip-flops, timing things with clock dividers, creating our first Verilog module, and controlling LEDs with pulse width modulation. This post is also available for the Arty. This post was last updated in December 2021. New to the series?

# Lines and Triangles

Welcome back to Exploring FPGA Graphics. It’s time to turn our attention to drawing. Most modern computer graphics come down to drawing triangles and colouring them in. So, it seems fitting to begin our tour of drawing with triangles and the straight lines that form them. This post will implement Bresenham’s line algorithm in Verilog, creating lines, triangles, and even a cube (our first sort-of-3D graphic). This post was last updated in January 2022.

# Hello Nexys - Part 1

This three-part tutorial provides a quick introduction to FPGA development with SystemVerilog and the Digilent Nexys Video board. No prior experience of FPGA development is required, but basic knowledge of programming concepts is assumed. If you can write a simple program with Python or JavaScript, you shouldn’t have any trouble. This post was last updated in June 2021. I find working with FPGAs gives me a sense of delight so often lacking in modern software development.